Competitive mechanisms will push companies to do their best, to innovate, reduce their prices and/or increase the quality of their product or to differentiate themselves. This is a source of market efficiency, which may be hampered by certain behaviour of firms and/or by market structures that are too concentrated for the competitive mechanisms to be exercised. In order to preserve this efficiency, competition policy will define and enforce a number of rules aimed at preserving this competitive mechanism. It will therefore aim to provide a framework for the behaviour of undertakings.
The other objective is that the rules will also aim to protect consumers, including consumer "welfare". This can be assessed using a multiplicity of criteria (e.g. price, quality, variety, simplicity or transparency of the market).
Constance Monnier-Schlumberger is a lecturer at the University Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne where she teaches competition policy and economics. She has also taught at the French Business School ESCP Europe. Prior to her PhD in economics, she studied political science at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), economics at the University of Paris 1 and the University of Birmingham (UK), and European law at the University of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne. Since 2013, she has been a non-governmental advisor to the International Competition Network (ICN). In this capacity, she has participated in the activities of the International Competition Network concerning cartels and abuses of dominant position. Constance Monnier-Schlumberger's publications deal with economics and competition policy, with a focus on cartels.